-- 2011 --

Brzezinski, M., S.B. Baines, W.M. Balch, C.P. Beucher, F. Chai, R.C. Dugdale, J.W. Krause, M.R. Landry, A. Marchi, C.I. Measures, D.M. Nelson, A.E. Parker, A.J. Poulton, K.E. Selph, P.G. Strutton, A.G. Taylor, and B.S. Twining (2011): Co-limitation of diatoms by iron and silicic acid in the equatorial Pacific. Deep-Sea Research II, 58, 493-511.  DOWNLOAD

Dugdale, R., F. Chai, R. Feely, C. Measures, A. Parker, and F. Wilkerson (2011): The regulation of equatorial Pacific new production and pCO2 by silicate-limited diatoms. Deep-Sea Research II, 58, 477-492.  DOWNLOAD

Hong, H., F. Chai, C. Zhang, B. Huang, Y. Jiang, and J. Hu (2011): An overview of physical and biogeochemical processes and ecosystem dynamics in the Taiwan Strait. Continental Shelf Research, 31, S3-S12.  DOWNLOAD

Nan, F., H. Xue, F. Chai, L. Shi, M. Shi, and P. Guo (2011): Identification of different types of Kuroshio intrusion into the South China Sea. Ocean Dynamics, DOI 10.1007/s10236-011-0426-3.  DOWNLOAD

Nan, F., H. Xue, P. Xiu, F. Chai, M. Shi, and P. Guo (2011): Oceanic eddy formation and propagation southwest of Taiwan. J. Geophys. Res., 116, C12045, doi:10.1029/2011JC007386.  DOWNLOAD

Palacz, A.P., F. Chai, R. C. Dugdale, and C.I. Measures (2011): Estimating iron and aluminum removal rates in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean using a box model approach. Deep-Sea Research II, 58, 311-324.  DOWNLOAD

Palacz, A.P., H. Xue, C. Armbrecht, C. Zhang, and F. Chai (2011): Seasonal and inter-annual changes in the surface chlorophyll of the Souch China Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 116, C09015, doi:10.1029/2011JC007064.  DOWNLOAD

Song, J., H. Xue, X. Bao, D. Wu, F. Chai, L. Shi, Z. Yao, Y. Wang, F. Nan, and K. Wan (2011): A spectral mixture model analysis of the Kuroshio variability and the water exchange between the Kuroshio and the East China Sea. Chinese Journal of Oceanography and Limnology, 29, 446-459.  DOWNLOAD

Strutton, P., A.P. Palacz, R.C. Dugdale, F. Chai, A. Marchi, A.E. Parker, V. Hogue, and F.P. Wilkerson (2011): The impact of equatorial Pacific tropical instability waves on hydrography and nutrients: 2004-2005. Deep-Sea Research II, 58, 284-295.  DOWNLOAD

Xu, D., and H. Xue (2011): A numerical study of horizontal dispersion in a macro tidal basin. Ocean Dynamics, 61, 623-637.  DOWNLOAD

Xiu, P., A.P. Palacz, F. Chai, E.G. Roy, and M. L. Wells (2011): Iron flux induced by Haida eddies in the Gulf of Alaska. Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L13607, doi:10.1029/2011GL047946.  DOWNLOAD

Xiu, P., and F. Chai (2011): Modeled biogeochemical responses to mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 116, C10006, doi:10.1029/2010JC006800. DOWNLOAD



-- 2010 --

Incze, L., H. Xue, N. Wolff, D. Xu, C. Wilson, R. Steneck, R. Wahle, P. Lawton, N. Pettigrew, and Y. Chen (2010): Connectivity of lobster (Homarus americanus) populations in the coastal Gulf of Maine: part II. Coupled biophysical dynamics. Fisheries Oceanography, 19, 1-20.  DOWNLOAD

Thomas, A.C., R. Weatherbee, H. Xue, and G. Liu (2010): Interannual variability of shellfish toxicity in the Gulf of Maine: Time and space patterns and links to environmental variability. Harmful Algae, 9, 458-480.  DOWNLOAD

Xiu, P. and F. Chai (2010): Modeling the effects of size on patch dynamics of an inert tracer. Ocean Science, 6, 413-421.  DOWNLOAD

Xiu, P., F. Chai, L. Shi, H. Xue, and Y. Chao (2010): A census of eddy activities in the South China Sea during 1993-2007. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, C03012, doi:10.1029/2009JC005657.  DOWNLOAD

Xue, H. and Y. Du (2010): Implementation of a wetting-and-drying model in simulating the Kennebec-Androscoggin plume and the circulation in Casco Bay. Ocean Dynamics, 60, 341-357.  DOWNLOAD



-- 2009 --

Bidigare, R., F. Chai, M.R. Landry, R. Lukas, C.C.S. Hannides, S.J. Christensen, D.M. Karl, L. Shi, and Y. Chao (2009): Subtropical ocean system structure changes forced by North Pacific climate variations. Journal Plankton Research, 31, 1131-1139.  DOWNLOAD

Chai, F., G. Liu, H. Xue, L. Shi, Y. Chao, C-M. Tseng, W-C. Chou and K-K Liu (2009): Seasonal and interannual variability of carbon cycle in South China Sea: A three-dimensional physical-biogeochemical modeling study. Journal of Oceanography, 65, 703-720.  DOWNLOAD

Fujii, M., F. Chai, L. Shi, H.Y. Inoue, and M. Ishii (2009): Seasonal and interannual variability of ocean carbon cycling in the western and central tropical-subtropical Pacific: A physical-biogeochemical modeling study. Journal of Oceanography, 65, 689-701.  DOWNLOAD

Fujii, M. and F. Chai (2009): Influences of initial plankton biomass and mixed-layer depth on the outcome of iron-fertilization experiments. Deep-Sea Research II, 56, 2936-2947.  DOWNLOAD

Guimei Liu  and Fei Chai (2009): Seasonal and interannual variability of primary and export production in the South China Sea: a three-dimensional physical-biogeochemical model study. ICES Journal of Marine Systems, 66, 420-431.  DOWNLOAD

Guimei Liu  and Fei Chai (2009): Seasonal and interannual variation of physical and biological processes during 1994-2001 in the Sea of Japan/East Sea: a three-dimensional physical-biogeochemical modeling study. Journal of Marine Systems, 78, 265-277DOWNLOAD

Guimei Liu and Huijie Xue (2009): The sensitivity of a 3D biogeochemical-like tracer model to advection schemes. Ocean Modelling, 29, 234-247.  DOWNLOAD

Friedrichs, M.A.M., et al., Assessing the uncertainties of model estimates of primary productivity in the tropical Pacific Ocean, Journal of Marine Systems, 76, 113-133.  DOWNLOAD

Salisbury, J., D. Vandemark, C. Hunt, J. Campbell, B. Jonsson, A. Mahadevan, W. McGillis, and H. Xue (2009): Episodic riverine influence on surface DIC in the coastal Gulf of Maine. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 82, 108-118.  DOWNLOAD

Xiu, P., Y. Liu, G. Li, Q. Xu, H. Zong, Z. Rong, X. Yin, and F. Chai (2009): Deriving depths of deep chlorophyll maximum and water inherent optical properties: A regional model. Continental Shelf Research, 29, 2270-2279.  DOWNLOAD

Zhang, W., H. Hong, S. Shang, X. Yan, and F. Chai (2009): Strong southward transport events due to typhoons in the Taiwan Strait. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, C11013, doi:10.1029/2009JC005372.  DOWNLOAD



-- 2008 --

Alexander M., A. Capotondi, A. Miller, F. Chai, R. Brodeur, and C. Deser (2008), Decadal variability in the northeast Pacific in a physical-ecosystem model: Role of mixed layer depth and trophic interactions, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C02017,doi:10.1029/2007JC004359. DOWNLOAD

Buesseler et al.(2008), ENVIRONMENT: Ocean Iron Fertilization--Moving Forward in a Sea of Uncertainty. Science, 319, 162, DOI: 10.1126/science.1154305. DOWNLOAD

Polovina, J. J., F. Chai, E.A. Howell, D.R. Kobayashi, L. Shi, and Y. Chao (2008): Ecosystem dynamics at a productivity gradient: A study of the lower trophic dynamics around the northern atolls in the Hawaiian Archipelago. Progress in Oceanography, 77, 217-224. DOWNLOAD

Huijie Xue, Lewis Incze, Danya Xu, Nicholas Wolff, and Neal Pettigrew (2008): Conncetivity of lobster populations in the coastal Gulf of Maine, Part I: Circulation and larval transport potential. Ecological Modelling, 210, 193-211.  DOWNLOAD

Pettigrew, N., H. Xue, J.D. Irish, W. Perrie, C.S. Roesler, A.C. Thomas, and D.W. Townsend (2008): The Gulf of Maine ocean observing system: generic lessons learned in the first seven years of operation (2001-2008). Marine Technology Society Journal, 42, 91-102.  DOWNLOAD



-- 2007 --

Pfeiffer-Herbert, A.S., M.A. McManus, P. Raimondi, Y. Chao, and F. Chai (2007): Dispersal of barnacle larvae along the central California coast: a model study. Limno. Oceanogr. 52(4) 1559-1569.  DOWNLOAD

Chai, F., M.S. Jiang, Y. Chao, R. Dugdale, F. Chavez and R.T. Barber (2007): Modeling responses of diatom productivity and biogenic silica export to iron enrichment in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Global biogeochemical cycles, 21, GB3S90, doi:10.1029/2006GB002804.  DOWNLOAD

Masahiko Fujii and Fei Chai (2007): Modeling carbon and silicon cycling in the equatorial Pacific. Deep Sea Research Part II, 54, 496-520.  DOWNLOAD

Masahiko Fujii, E. Boss, and F. Chai (2007): The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: a case study. Biogeoscience, 4, 817-835.  DOWNLOAD

Masahiko Fujii , Y. Yamanaka, Y. Nojiri, M. Kishi and F. Chai (2007): Comparison of seasonal characteristics in biogeochemistry among the subarctic North Pacific stations described with a NEMURO-based marine ecosystem model. Ecological Modeling, 202, 52-67.  DOWNLOAD

Friedrichs, M. A. M, J. Dusenberry, L. Anderson, R. Armstrong, F. Chai, J. Christian, S. Doney, J. Dunne, M. Fujii, R. Hood, D. McGillicuddy, K. Moore, M. Schartau,Y. Spitz, and J. Wiggert (2007): Assessment of skill and portability in regional marine biogeochemical models: role of multiple plankton groups. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, C08001, doi:10.1029/2006JC003852.  DOWNLOAD

Wenzhou Zhang, Huasheng Hong, Shaoping Shang, Dewen Chen, and Fei Chai (2007): A two-way nested coupled tide-surge model for the Taiwan Strait. Continental shelf research, 27:1548-1567.  DOWNLOAD

Dugdale, R., F. Wilkerson, F. Chai, and R. Feely (2007): Size-fractionated nitrogen uptake measurements in the equatorial Pacific and confirmation of the low Si-high-nitrate low-chlorophyll condition. Global biogeochemical cycles, 21, GB2005, doi:10.1029/2006GB002722.  DOWNLOAD



-- 2006 --

Hood, R.R., E.A. Laws, R.A. Armstrong, R.R. Bates, C.W. Brown, C.A. Carlson, F. Chai, S.C. Doney, P.G. Falkowski, R.A. Feely, M.A.M. Friedrichs, M.R. Landry, J.K. Moore, D.M. Nelson, T.L. Richardson, B. Salihoglu, M. Schartau, T.A. Toole, J.D. Wiggert (2006): Pelagic Functional Group Modeling: Progress, Challenges and Prospects. Deep-Sea Research II, 53, 459-512.  DOWNLOAD

Ming-Shun Jiang and Fei Chai (2006): Physical control on the seasonal cycle of surface pCO2 in the equatorial Pacific. Geophysical research Letters,  33, L23608, doi:10.1029/2006GL027195.  DOWNLOAD

Danya Xu, Huijie Xue, David Greenberg (2006): A numerical study of the circulation and drifter trajectories in Cobscook bay, Esturine and coastal modeling.  DOWNLOAD

Ning, X., F. Chai and Q. Hao (2006): Hypereutrophication in Ngau Mei Hoi Bay, Hong Kong. Journal of Coastal Reesearch. 22(6), 1565-1572.   DOWNLOAD

Incze, L.S., R.A.Wahle, N.Wolff, C.Wilson, R. Steneck, E.Annis, P. Lawton, H. Xue, and Y. Chen (2006): Early life history and a modeling framework for lobster (Homarus Americanus) populations in the Gulf of Maine, Journal of Crustacean biology, 26(4): 555-564.  DOWNLOAD



-- 2005 --

McKinley, G. A, T Takahashi, E Buitenhuis, F Chai, J.R.Christian, S.C.Doney, M.-S. Jiang, K. Lindsay, J.K.Moore, C.Le Quere, I.Lima, R. Murtugudde, L.Shi, and P.Wetzel (2006): North Pacific carbon cycle response to climate variability on seasonal to decadal timescales, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C07S06, doi:10.1029/2005JC003173.  DOWNLOAD

Ming-Shun Jiang and Fei Chai (2005): Physical and biological controls on the latitudinal asymmetry of surface nutrients and pCO2 in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. Journal of geophysical research, 110, C06007, doi:10.1029/2004JC002715.  DOWNLOAD

Neal Pettigrew, James Churchill, Carol Janzen, Linda Mangum, Richard Signell, Andrew Thomas, David Townsend, John Walling, Huijie Xue, (2005): The kinematic and hydrographic structure of the Gulf of Maine Coastal Current. Deep Sea Research II, 52: 2369-2391.  DOWNLOAD

Huijie Xue, Lei Shi, Steven Cousins and Neal Pettigrew (2005): The GoMOOS Nowcast/Forecast System. Continental Shelf Research 25, 2122-2146.  DOWNLOAD

Masahiko Fujii, Naoki Yoshie, Yasuhiro Yamanaka and Fei Chai (2005): Simulated biogeochemical responses to iron enrichments in three high nutrient, low chlorophyll (HNLC) regions. Progress in Oceanography, 64, 307-324.  DOWNLOAD

Masahiko Fujii and Fei Chai (2005): Effects of biogenic silica dissolution on silicon cycling and export production. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 32, L05617, doi:10.1029/2004GL022054.  DOWNLOAD



-- 2004 --

Sandweiss, D.H., K. A. Maasch, F. Chai, C. F. T. Andrus, and E. J. Reitz (2004): Geoarchaeological evidence for multidecadal natural climatic variability and ancient Peruvian fisheries. Quaternary Research, 61, 330-334. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2004.02.008.  DOWNLOAD

Dugdale, R.C., M. Lyle, F. P. Wilkerson, F. Chai, R. T. Barber, and T.-H. Peng (2004): Influence of equatorial diatom processes on Si deposition and atmospheric CO2 cycles at glacial/interglacial timescales. PALEOCEANOGRAPHY, VOL. 19, PA3011, doi:10.1029/2003PA000929 .  DOWNLOAD

deYoung, B., M. Heath, F. Werner, F. Chai, B. Megrey, and P. Monfray (2004): Challenges of Modeling Ocean Basin Ecosystems. Science, Vol 304:1463-1466.  DOWNLOAD

Jiang, M., and F. Chai (2004): Iron and silicate regulation of new and export production in the equatorial Pacific: A physical-biological model study. Geophysical Research Letters 31, L07307, doi:10.1029/2003GL018598.  DOWNLOAD

Miller, A. J., F. Chai, S. Chiba, J.R. Moisan and D.J. Neilson (2004): Decadal-Scale Climate and Ecosystem Interactions in the North Pacific Ocean. Jounral of Oceanography, 60:163-188.  DOWNLOAD

Ning, X., F. Chai, H. Xue, Y. Cai, C. Liu and J.Shi (2004): Physical-biological oceanographic coupling influencing phytoplankton and primary production in the South China Sea. J. Geophys. Res. Vol.109, C100005, doi:10.1029/2004JC002365.   DOWNLOAD

Xue, H., L. Shi and S. Cousins (2004): SST Assimilation and Assessment of the Predicted Temperature from the GoMOOS Nowcast/Forecast System. Proceedings of the 8th international Conference on Coastal and Estuarine Modeling, ASCE,128-143.  DOWNLOAD

Xue, H., F. Chai, N. R. Pettigrew, D. Xu, M. Shi, and J. Xu (2004): Kuroshio Intrusion and the Circulation in the South China Sea. J. Geophys. Res. Vol. 109, C10005, doi:10.1029/2004JC002365.   DOWNLOAD

 


-- 2003 --

Wong, L. A., J. C. Chen, H. Xue, L. X. Dong, J. L. Su, and G. Heinke (2003): A model study of the circulation in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and its adjacent coastal waters: 1. Simulations and comparison with observations, J. Geophys. Res., 108 (C5), 3156, doi: 10.1029/2002JC001451.  DOWNLOAD

Wong, L. A., J. C. Chen, H. Xue, L. X. Dong, W. B. Guan, and J. L. Su, 2003: A model study of the circulation in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and its adjacent coastal waters: 2. Sensitivity experiments, J. Geophys. Res. , 108 (C5), 3157, doi: 10.1029/2002JC001452.  DOWNLOAD

Jiang, M-S, F. Chai , R.T. Barber, R.C. Dugd ale, F. Wilkerson, and T-H Peng (2003). A nitrate and silicate budget in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean: A coupled biological-physical model study. Deep-Sea Res. II., Vol. 50 (22-26), 2971-2996.  DOWNLOAD

Lehodey , P., F. Chai , and J. Hampton (2003): Modelling climate-related variability of tuna populations from a coupled ocean-biogeochemical-populations dynamics model. Fisheries Oceanography , Vol. 12, 45, 483-494.  DOWNLOAD

Chai, F. , M. Jiang, R.T. Barber, R.C. Dugdale, and Y. Chao (2003): Interdecadal Variation of the Transition Zone Chlorophyll Front, A Physical-Biological Model Simulation between 1960 and 1990. Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 59, 461-475.  DOWNLOAD

Miller, A.J., M.A. Alexander, G.J. Boer, F. Chai , K. Deman, D.J. Erickson, R. Frouin, A.J. Gabric, E.A. Laws, M.R. Lewis, Z. Liu, R. Murtugudde, S. Nakamoto, D.J. Neilson, J.R. Norris, J.C. Ohlmann, R. Perry, N. Schnerider, K. Shell, and A. Timmermann (2003): Potential Feedbacks Between Pacific Ocean Ecosystems and Interdecadal Climate Variations. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS), May 2003, 617-633.   DOWNLOAD

 


-- 2002 --

Li, Y., H. Xue, and J. M. Bane (2002): Air-Sea Interactions during the Passage of a Winter Storm over the Gulf Stream : A 3D Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Model Study. J. Geophys. Res ., 107, C11, 3200, doi: 10.1029/2001JC001161.  DOWNLOAD

Xue, H., and F. Chai (2002): Coupled Physical-Biological Model for the Pearl River Estuary: A Phosphate Limited Subtropical Ecosystem. Proceedings of the 7 th International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling. ASCE,913-928.  DOWNLOAD

Chai, F. , R. C. Dugdale, T-H Peng, F. P. Wilkerson, and R. T. Barber (2002): One Dimensional Ecosystem Model of the Equatorial Pacific Upwelling System, Part I: Model Development and Silicon and Nitrogen Cycle. Deep-Sea Res. II , Vol. 49, No. 13-14, 2713-2745. DOWNLOAD

Dugdale, R.C., R. T. Barber, F. Chai , T.H. Peng, and F.P. Wilkerson (2002): One Dimensional Ecosystem Model of the Equatorial Pacific Upwelling System, Part II: Sensitivity Analysis and Comparison with JGOFS EqPac Data. Deep-Sea Res. II , Vol. 49, No. 13-14, 2746-2762.  DOWNLOAD

Dugdale, R.C., A.G. Wischmeyer, F.K. Wilkerson, R. T. Barber, F. Chai , M. Jiang, and T.H. Peng (2002): Source of meridional asymmetry of nutrients to the equatorial upwelling ecosystem and modeling of the impact on ocean-atmosphere CO 2 flux. Deep-Sea Res. II , Vol. 49, No. 13-14, 2713-2532.  DOWNLOAD

 


-- 2001 --

Xue, H., F. Chai , and M. Shi (2001): The Loop Current Incursion of Kuroshio and Circulation Features in the Northeastern South China Sea . In Oceanography in China (13), H. Xue, F. Chai, and J. Xu eds., China Ocean Press. 23-38.

Xue, H., F. Chai , D. Xu, and M. Shi (2001): Characteristics and Seasonal Variation of the Coastal Currents in the South China Sea . In Oceanography in China (13), H. Xue, F. Chai, and J. Xu eds., China Ocean Press. 64-75.

Xue, H., F. Chai, L.-A. Wong, J.-C. Chen (2001): Pearl River Estuarine Circulation Model. In Oceanography in China (13), H. Xue, F. Chai, and J. Xu eds., China Ocean Press. 138-151.

Xue, H., Chai, F. , and M. Shi (2001): Transport through the Luzon Strait and Water Balance in the South China Sea . Oceanography in China (13) , H. Xue, F. Chai, and J. Xu eds., China Ocean Press. 152-167.

 


-- 2000 --

Xue, H., F. Chai , N. R. Pettigrew, D. Xu, and M. Shi  (2000): Upper Ocean Circulation in the Northern South China Sea . Proceedings - Second International Ocean and Atmosphere Conference COAA 2000 , 73-78.

Xue, H., Y. Xu, D. Brooks, N. R. Pettigrew, and J. Wallinga (2000): Modeling the circulation in Penobscot Bay , Maine . Proceedings of the 6 th International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling , 1112-1127.  DOWNLOAD

O'Brien, K. M., H. Xue, and B. D. Sidell (2000): Quantification of diffusion distance within the spongy myocardium of hearts from Antarctic fishes. Respiration Physiology , 122, 71-80.

Xue, H., F. Chai, and N. R. Pettigrew (2000): A model study of seasonal circulation in the Gulf of Maine . J. Phys. Oceanogr ., 30 , 1111-1135.  DOWNLOAD

Xue, H., Z. Pan, and J. M. Bane, Jr. (2000) : A 2D coupled atmosphere-ocean model study of air-sea interactions during a cold air advection over the Gulf Stream . Mon.Wea. Rev. , 128, 973-996 .  DOWNLOAD

 


-- Before 2000 --

Chai, F., and H. Xue (1999): The response of the equatorial western Pacific to a westerly wind burst. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 18(4), 69-78.

Pettigrew, N. R., D. W. Townsend, H. Xue, J. P. Wallinga, P. J. Brickley, and R. D. Hetland (1998): Observation of the Eastern Maine Coastal Current and its offshore extensions. J. Geophys. Res ., 103 , 30623-30639.

Xue H., and J. M. Bane, Jr. (1997): A numerical investigation of the Gulf Stream and its meanders in response to cold air outbreaks. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27 , 2606-2629.

Xue, H., J. M. Bane, Jr. and L. M. Goodman (1995): Modification of the Gulf Stream through Strong Air-Sea Interaction in Winter: Observational and Modeling Results. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 25 , 533-557.

Xue, H., and G. L. Mellor (1993): Instability of the Gulf Stream Front in the South Atlantic Bight. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 23 , 2326 - 2350.

Xue, H. (1991): Gulf Stream Meanders in the South Atlantic Bight. Ph. D. dissertation, Princeton University , 188 pp.

Li, X., and H. Xue (1987): Geostrophic and Frictional Adjustment of Effluent Flow of the Huanghe River . Chin. J. Oceanol. Limnol ., 5 (3), 241-250.

Li, X., and H. Xue (1985): A Model of the Estuarine Circulation in the River Delta Area. Journal of Shandong College of Oceanology , 15 (4), 1-13.

Chai, F. , R.T. Barber, and S.T. Lindley (1996): Origin and maintenance of high nutrient condition in the equatorial Pacific. Deep-Sea Res . II ,Vol. 42 , No. 4-6, 1031-1064.   DOWNLOAD

 

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